The First Symphony is a fine illustration of Brahms' point of view. It was written after Beethoven's model of the monumental heroic symphony. The stormy opening refers with its tonality to Beethoven's Fifth, while the hymnical theme in the finale refers to Die Ode an die Freude from Beethoven's Ninth. In this way, Brahms demonstrates that a similar theme can be transposed perfectly symphonically, without using voices and text - an implicit criticism of Beethoven, but especially of Wagner. He thus refuted Wagner's view that Beethoven's Ninth Symphony marked the end of the symphony as a genre, and had to lead to the sung music drama.